Quarterly report pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d)

Significant Accounting Policies

Significant Accounting Policies
6 Months Ended
Oct. 31, 2016
Accounting Policies [Abstract]  
Significant Accounting Policies

Note 2. Significant Accounting Policies


Principles of Consolidation


The consolidated financial statements include the accounts of Aspen Group, Inc. and its wholly-owned subsidiaries. All intercompany balances and transactions have been eliminated in consolidation.


Use of Estimates


The preparation of the unaudited consolidated financial statements in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (“GAAP”) requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts in the unaudited consolidated financial statements. Actual results could differ from those estimates. Significant estimates in the accompanying unaudited consolidated financial statements include the allowance for doubtful accounts and other receivables, the valuation of collateral on certain receivables, amortization periods and valuation of courseware and software development costs, valuation of beneficial conversion features in convertible debt, valuation of derivative instruments, valuation of loss contingencies, valuation of stock-based compensation and the valuation allowance on deferred tax assets.


Cash and Cash Equivalents


For the purposes of the unaudited consolidated statements of cash flows, the Company considers all highly liquid investments with an original maturity of three months or less when purchased to be cash equivalents. There were no cash equivalents at October 31, 2016 and April 30, 2016. The Company maintains its cash in bank and financial institution deposits that at times may exceed federally insured limits of $250,000 per financial institution. The Company has not experienced any losses in such accounts from inception through October 31, 2016. As of October 31, 2016 and April 30, 2016, there were deposits totaling $426,487 and $1,224,863 respectively, held in two separate institutions greater than the federally insured limits.


Fair Value Measurements


Fair value is the exchange price that would be received for an asset or paid to transfer a liability (an exit price) in the principal or most advantageous market for the asset or liability in an orderly transaction between market participants. The Company classifies assets and liabilities recorded at fair value under the fair value hierarchy based upon the observability of inputs used in valuation techniques. Observable inputs (highest level) reflect market data obtained from independent sources, while unobservable inputs (lowest level) reflect internally developed market assumptions. The fair value measurements are classified under the following hierarchy:


Level 1—Observable inputs that reflect quoted market prices (unadjusted) for identical assets and liabilities in active markets;

Level 2—Observable inputs, other than quoted market prices, that are either directly or indirectly observable in the marketplace for identical or similar assets and liabilities, quoted prices in markets that are not active, or other inputs that are observable or can be corroborated by observable market data for substantially the full term of the assets and liabilities; and

Level 3—Unobservable inputs that are supported by little or no market activity that are significant to the fair value of assets or liabilities.


The estimated fair value of certain financial instruments, including cash and cash equivalents, accounts receivable, accounts payable and accrued expenses are carried at historical cost basis, which approximates their fair values because of the short-term nature of these instruments.


Refunds Due Students


The Company receives Title IV funds from the Department of Education to cover tuition and living expenses. After deducting tuition and fees, the Company sends checks for the remaining balances to the students.


Revenue Recognition and Deferred Revenue


Revenues consist primarily of tuition and fees derived from courses taught by the Company online as well as from related educational resources that the Company provides to its students, such as access to our online materials and learning management system. Tuition revenue is recognized pro-rata over the applicable period of instruction. The Company allows a student to make three monthly tuition payments during each class. The Company maintains an institutional tuition refund policy, which provides for all or a portion of tuition to be refunded if a student withdraws during stated refund periods. Certain states in which students reside impose separate, mandatory refund policies, which override the Company’s policy to the extent in conflict. If a student withdraws at a time when a portion or none of the tuition is refundable, then in accordance with its revenue recognition policy, the Company recognizes as revenue the tuition that was not refunded. Since the Company recognizes revenue pro-rata over the term of the course and because, under its institutional refund policy, the amount subject to refund is never greater than the amount of the revenue that has been deferred, under the Company’s accounting policies revenue is not recognized with respect to amounts that could potentially be refunded. The Company’s educational programs have starting and ending dates that differ from its fiscal quarters. Therefore, at the end of each fiscal quarter, a portion of revenue from these programs is not yet earned and is therefore deferred. The Company also charges students annual fees for library, technology and other services, which are recognized over the related service period. Deferred revenue represents the amount of tuition, fees, and other student payments received in excess of the portion recognized as revenue and it is included in current liabilities in the accompanying consolidated balance sheets. Other revenues may be recognized as sales occur or services are performed.


The Company has revenues from students outside the United States representing 3.5% of the revenues for the quarter ended October 31, 2016.


Accounting for Derivatives


The Company evaluates its convertible instruments, options, warrants or other contracts to determine if those contracts or embedded components of those contracts qualify as derivatives to be separately accounted for under ASC Topic 815, “Derivatives and Hedging”. The result of this accounting treatment is that the fair value of the derivative is marked-to-market each balance sheet date and recorded as a liability. In the event that the fair value is recorded as a liability, the change in fair value is recorded in the statement of operations as other income (expense). Upon conversion or exercise of a derivative instrument, the instrument is marked to fair value at the conversion date and then that fair value is reclassified to equity. Equity instruments that are initially classified as equity that become subject to reclassification under ASC Topic 815 are reclassified to liability at the fair value of the instrument on the reclassification date.


Net Income (Loss) Per Share


Net income (loss) per common share is based on the weighted average number of common shares outstanding during each period. Options to purchase 22,197,979 and 16,857,313 common shares, warrants to purchase 11,214,659 and 28,871,757 common shares, and $350,000 and $650,000 of convertible debt (convertible into 907,143 and 1,207,143 common shares, respectively) were outstanding during three months ending October 31, 2016 and 2015, respectively, but during certain periods were not included in the computation of diluted loss per share because the effects would have been anti-dilutive. The options, warrants and convertible debt are considered to be common stock equivalents and are only included in the calculation of diluted earnings per common share when their effect is dilutive, as noted in the chart below.


Basic and diluted income per share for the three months ended October 31, 2016, were calculated as follows:


    Basic     Diluted  
Net income applicable to common stock   $ 116,541     $ 116,541  
Convertible debt interest           8,021  
    $ 116,541     $ 124,562  
Weighted average common shares outstanding     137,758,145       137,758,145  
Convertible debt           907,143  
Warrants and options           7,017,878  
      137,758,145       145,683,166  
Net income per share   $ 0.00     $ 0.00  


Recent Accounting Pronouncements


There have been no new relevant pronouncements since those disclosed in the April 30, 2016 Consolidated Financial Statements.