Significant Accounting Policies
|6 Months Ended|
Oct. 31, 2013
|Significant Accounting Policies [Abstract]|
|Significant Accounting Policies||
Note 2. Significant Accounting Policies
Principles of Consolidation
The unaudited consolidated financial statements include the accounts of Aspen Group, Inc. and its wholly-owned subsidiaries. All intercompany balances and transactions have been eliminated in consolidation.
Use of Estimates
The preparation of the unaudited consolidated financial statements in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America ("GAAP") requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts in the unaudited consolidated financial statements. Actual results could differ from those estimates. Significant estimates in the accompanying unaudited consolidated financial statements include the allowance for doubtful accounts and other receivables, the valuation of collateral on certain receivables, amortization periods and valuation of courseware and software development costs, valuation of beneficial conversion features in convertible debt, valuation of stock-based compensation, the valuation of net assets and liabilities from discontinued operations and the valuation allowance on deferred tax assets.
Restricted cash represents amounts pledged as security for letters of credit for transactions involving Title IV programs. The Company considers $265,444 as restricted cash (shown as a current asset as of October 31, 2013) until such letter of credit expires on December 31, 2013. As of October 31, 2013, the account bears interest of 0.20%.
Fair Value Measurements
Fair value is the exchange price that would be received for an asset or paid to transfer a liability (an exit price) in the principal or most advantageous market for the asset or liability in an orderly transaction between market participants. The Company classifies assets and liabilities recorded at fair value under the fair value hierarchy based upon the observability of inputs used in valuation techniques. Observable inputs (highest level) reflect market data obtained from independent sources, while unobservable inputs (lowest level) reflect internally developed market assumptions. The fair value measurements are classified under the following hierarchy:
Level 1-Observable inputs that reflect quoted market prices (unadjusted) for identical assets and liabilities in active markets;
Level 2-Observable inputs, other than quoted market prices, that are either directly or indirectly observable in the marketplace for identical or similar assets and liabilities, quoted prices in markets that are not active, or other inputs that are observable or can be corroborated by observable market data for substantially the full term of the assets and liabilities; and
Level 3-Unobservable inputs that are supported by little or no market activity that are significant to the fair value of assets or liabilities.
The estimated fair value of certain financial instruments, including cash and cash equivalents, accounts receivable, accounts payable and accrued expenses are carried at historical cost basis, which approximates their fair values because of the short-term nature of these instruments.
Title IV Funds in Transit
The Company receives Title IV funds from the Department of Education to cover tuition and living expenses. Until forwarded to the student, the amount of living expenses is captured in a current liability account called Title IV Funds in Transit. Typically, the funds are paid to the students within two weeks.
Revenue Recognition and Deferred Revenue
Revenues consist primarily of tuition and fees derived from courses taught by the Company online as well as from related educational resources that the Company provides to its students, such as access to our online materials and learning management system. Tuition revenue is recognized pro-rata over the applicable period of instruction. The Company maintains an institutional tuition refund policy, which provides for all or a portion of tuition to be refunded if a student withdraws during stated refund periods. Certain states in which students reside impose separate, mandatory refund policies, which override the Company's policy to the extent in conflict. If a student withdraws at a time when a portion or none of the tuition is refundable, then in accordance with its revenue recognition policy, the Company recognizes as revenue the tuition that was not refunded. Since the Company recognizes revenue pro-rata over the term of the course and because, under its institutional refund policy, the amount subject to refund is never greater than the amount of the revenue that has been deferred, under the Company's accounting policies revenue is not recognized with respect to amounts that could potentially be refunded. The Company's educational programs have starting and ending dates that differ from its fiscal quarters. Therefore, at the end of each fiscal quarter, a portion of revenue from these programs is not yet earned and is therefore deferred. The Company also charges students annual fees for library, technology and other services, which are recognized over the related service period. Deferred revenue represents the amount of tuition, fees, and other student payments received in excess of the portion recognized as revenue and it is included in current liabilities in the accompanying consolidated balance sheets. Other revenues may be recognized as sales occur or services are performed.
Revenue Recognition and Deferred Revenue - Discontinued Operations
The Company enters into certain revenue sharing arrangements with consultants whereby the consultants will develop course content primarily for technology-related courses, recommend, but not select, faculty, lease equipment on behalf of the Company for instructional purposes for the on-site laboratory portion of distance learning courses and make introductions to corporate and government sponsoring organizations that provide students for the courses. The Company has evaluated ASC 605-45 "Principal Agent Considerations" and determined that there are more indicators than not that the Company is the primary obligor in the arrangements since the Company establishes the tuition, interfaces with the student or sponsoring organization, selects the faculty, is responsible for delivering the course, is responsible for issuing any degrees or certificates, and is responsible for collecting the tuition and fees. The gross tuition and fees are included in revenues while the revenue sharing payments are included in instructional costs and services, an operating expense. As a result of presenting this component as discontinued operations, the revenues are now included in income (loss) from discontinued operations, net of income taxes for all periods presented (See Note 1).
Net Loss Per Share
Net loss per common share is based on the weighted average number of common shares outstanding during each period. Options to purchase 9,433,092 and 5,942,931 common shares, warrants to purchase 18,249,528 and 5,887,090 common shares, and $3,040,000 and $800,000 of convertible debt (convertible into 8,093,985 and 1,357,143 common shares) were outstanding during the six months ended October 31, 2013 and 2012, respectively, but were not included in the computation of diluted loss per share because the effects would have been anti-dilutive. The options, warrants and convertible debt are considered to be common stock equivalents and are only included in the calculation of diluted earnings per common share when their effect is dilutive.
The Company reclassified $257,378 and $253,883 at October 31, 2013 and April 30, 2013, respectively, from Deferred Revenue to Title IV Funds in Transit. Both are classified in Current Liabilities. For the three and six months ended October 31, 2013, the Company reclassified $62,250 and $113,250, respectively, from Cost of Revenues to General and Administrative, both within Operating Expenses. There were no corresponding reclassifications for the three and six months ended October 31, 2012.
Recent Accounting Pronouncements
We have implemented all new accounting standards that are in effect and that may impact our unaudited consolidated financial statements and do not believe that there are any other new accounting pronouncements that have been issued that might have a material impact on our consolidated financial position or results of operations.
The entire disclosure for all significant accounting policies of the reporting entity.
Reference 1: http://www.xbrl.org/2003/role/presentationRef